What is Gynecology?

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What is Gynecology?

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An obstetrician or gynecologist is a physician who is specialized in providing medical or surgical care to pregnant women. They are skilled in pregnancy, childbirth, and disorders related to reproductive systems which include preventative care, prenatal care, and detection of sexually transmitted diseases family planning and so on.

Most of irregular menstrual bleeding is due to hormonal imbalance. Mostly what happens is we simply ignore the signs of gynecological issues, and are unaware of symptoms related to reproductive organs. Discussed below are some popular problems treated by a gynecologist.

Problems dealt by a gynecologist are:

  • Detection of cancer disease in reproductive organs including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva
  • Issues with urine
  • Irregular periods
  • Painful menstrual intervals
  • Infertility problems
  • heavy menstrual cycle which is a common indication for hysterectomy
  • problems related to reproductive organs
  • infections In the vaginal region, cervix and uterus along with fungal, bacterial, viral, disease
  • UTI and pelvic inflammatory disease
  • premenstrual syndrome
  • other vaginal issues


Dysmenorrheal is a very common gynecologic problem faced by every menstruating women. It is so common that mostly ladies fail to report it to the doctor, even if their day to day activities are restricted. It is usually defined as cramping pain within the lower abdominal region on the onset of menstruation in absence of any identifiable pelvic disorder. This is far more different from secondary dysmenorrhea, which refers to painful menses resulting from pelvic disease including endometriosis.

Dysmenorrhea basically refers to the common symptom of painful menstruation. It is broadly classified as: primary: taking place in the absence of pelvic pathology and secondary: occurring from identifiable natural diseases.

Dysmenorrhea is the other name given for common menstrual cramps. Cramps will commonly begin 1 or 2 year after a girl starts getting her period. Pain normally is felt in the lower stomach or usually back pain is common. They may be slight to severe. Common menstrual cramps usually starts before or  on the onset of periods. They usually become less painful after a woman reaches a certain age or after they conceive first baby.

Secondary dysmenorrhea is categorized as pain caused by disorders in women’s reproductive organs.   These cramps generally begin prior to menstrual cycle and last till normal menstrual cycle


Menstrual cramps are a result of contractions inside the uterus, which basically is a muscle. The uterus is also known as womb where a baby grows inside women’s body, if the uterus starts contracting strongly it is pressed against the blood vessels cutting off oxygen supply to the uterus. Relief in pain takes place when muscle loses the supply of oxygen.


The symptoms of menstrual cramps include:

  • Ache within the stomach, pain can get severe at times.
  • feeling of pressure in the stomach
  • pain in the hips, lower body, and thighs


While cramps get extreme, signs may include

  • upset stomach, vomiting, headache, etc
  • free stools

2) ovarian cysts:

The ovary is one pair of reproductive organ in female body, basically located in the pelvis, one on the each side of uterus. Each ovary is set the dimensions and shape of a walnut. The ovaries produce the eggs (ova) and hormones estrogen and progesterone. The ovaries act as the main supply for woman hormones, which are responsible for the improvement of women’s characteristics including the breasts, body shape, and hair. Additionally they also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Ovarian cysts are generally sac like structures within ovary which generally consists liquid or semisolid substances. “Cyst” is simply a term used for a fluid-crammed shape, which has the tendency to represent tumor. If it is a tumor, it can be benign or malignant. The ovary is likewise called the female gonad.


Ovarian cysts happen due to several reasons. The most common kind of ovarian cyst is a follicular cyst, resulting from increase in a follicle. A follicle is the fluid-filled sac that consists of an egg. Follicular cysts form in the body when follicle grows in large number than normal during menstrual cycle and does no longer open to release the egg. Normally, follicular cysts heal spontaneously over the course of days to months. Cysts has the tendency contain blood (hemorrhagic cysts) from leakage of blood into the egg sac.

Another sort of ovarian cyst that relates to the menstrual cycle is known as corpus luteum cyst. The corpus luteum is a place of tissue inside the ovary that occurs after an egg has been released from a follicle. If a pregnancy doesn’t occur, the corpus luteum commonly breaks down and disappears. It could, however, fill with fluid or blood and persist as a cyst on the ovary. Usually, this cyst is detected only on one side, no symptoms is being produced and is resolved simultaneously.



Endometriosis is also referred to as “endo,” is a common health issues generally found in women’s. The word is derived from endometrium, which means, the tissue that generally lines the uterus or womb. Endometriosis occurs when the tissue grows outside the uterus.  most usually, endometriosis is determined on the:

  • ovaries
  • fallopian tubes
  • tissues that preserve the uterus in region
  • outside uterus

Other parts for growths can include the vagina, cervix, vulva, bowel, bladder, or rectum. It happens rarely, endometriosis appears in other parts of the body, together with the lungs, mind, and skin.


How endometriosis is caused is still unknown to many. One theory that comes out is that the endometrial tissue is deposited in unusual places via the backing up of menstrual flow into the fallopian tubes and the pelvic and stomach cavity all through menstruation often termed as retrograde menstruation. The reason by which retrograde menstruation is caused isn’t sincerely understood yet. However retrograde menstruation can’t be the foremost purpose of endometriosis. Many females have retrograde menstruation in different stages, but not all of them expand endometriosis.

Some other possibility is that areas lining the pelvic organs possess primitive cells which can be capable of developing into different styles of tissue, which include endometrial cells, this method is named as coelomic metaplasia.

Additionally, there are proofs that show alternations within the immune response in female with endometriosis, which may affect the person’s body’s herbal capacity to recognise and ruin any misdirected increase of endometrial tissue. 

signs and symptoms :

  • Painful menstrual cramps, the ache might also get worse over the years.
  • Chronic, long and heavy periods with ache within the lower pelvis.
  • Ache during or after intercourse. This is usually defined as a “deep” pain and is different from the ache felt at the doorway to the vagina when penetration starts.
  • Painful bowel movements or ache while urinating all through menstrual periods. In rare cases, you could additionally find blood from your urine.
  • Bleeding or spotting between menstrual cycles. This is mainly cause other than the reason being endometriosis.
  • stomach troubles, consisting of, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or nausea, especially throughout menstrual intervals.

4) PCOD (poly cyst ovarian disease):

PCOD is one of the most common hormonal reproductive problem found in women’s mostly who are childbearing stage.

In our body we’ve got two ovaries. They basically supply follicles which then grow to the form eggs. The egg then goes into uterus for fertilization, when fertilization doesn’t happens; you have your menstrual cycle operating to take care of it. In cases of PCOD, follicles are developed, however not all of them don’t grow into egg


The reason of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not completely understood yet, but genetics may be a reason behind PCOS. PCOS issues are due to hormonal changes in body. One hormone exchange triggers another, which changes every other.


  • Menstrual problems. These consist of few or no menstrual or heavy, abnormal bleeding.
  • Loss of hair from the scalp and hair increase
  • acne and oily pores and skin
  • Fertility problems, such as not releasing eggs or

However in today’s time with the advance technology and medications even impossible treatments are also been treated with ease and at very affordable prices.

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